Hello friends!! Today, through this article, we will know what is operating system? and also how will the operating system work? To know the complete information about Operating System, please read the full post.
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What is operating system?
The operating system (OS) works as an interface between Computer User and Computer Hardware.
An operating system is a software that can handle all basic functions such as file management, memory management, process management, input and output, and disk drives. And works to control peripheral devices such as printers.
Some popular operating systems include Linux, Windows, OS X, VMS, OS / 400, AIX, z / OS, etc.
What is Operating System
An operating system is a program that acts as an interface between users and computer hardware and controls the execution of all types of programs.
The following operating systems have some important functions –
- Memory Management
- Processor Management
- Device Management
- File Management
- Control over system performance
- Job accounting
- Error detecting aids
- Coordination between other software and users
How does the operating system work?
By the way, the OS is the life of the computer System, but some important work is that –
Memory Management refers to the management of primary memory or main memory. There is a large array of main words or words (bytes) where each word or byte has its own address.
The main memory provides fast storage that can be directly accessed by the CPU. Programs to be executed must always be in the main memory.
The following works for operating memory management –
- To keep track records of data of Primary Memory, that is, which part of Primary Memory is being used, which part is not being used.
- In multiprogramming, the OS determines how much memory the process will be.
- Allocates memory when a process asks for doing this.
- De-allocates memory when a process is no longer needed or it has been terminated.
In the multiprogramming environment, the operating system determines when and how long the processor will get. This function is called process scheduling.
An operating system performs the following functions for Processor Management –
- Keeps the record of the status of tracks and process of the processor. The program which is known as responsible for this task is called a traffic controller.
- Allocates the processor (CPU) into a process
- De-unlock processor when no process is required
An operating system manages device communication through their respective drivers.
An Operating System does the following activities for device management –
- Keep track of all the devices I / O controller is known for this task as a responsible program.
- Decides which process the device receives when and for how much time.
- Allocates the device efficiently.
- De-allocates device
A file system is usually arranged in directories for easy navigation and usage. These directories can have files and other directions.
An operating system does the following activities for non-file management –
- Keeps track of information, location, uses, status, etc. Collective facilities are often known as file systems
- Decides who will take the resources first.
- Allocates resources
- De-allocates resources
Other Important Activities
The following are some of the important activities that an operating system does –
- Security – Through passwords and other similar technologies, it protects programs and data from unauthorized access.
- Controls on the performance of the system – Records the delay between service requests and responses from the system.
- Job accounting – Keep track of the time and resources used by different jobs and users.
- Error detecting aids– produces dumps, traces, error messages, and other debugging and error detecting aids.
- Coordination between software and users – The connection between compiler, interpreters, assemblers and other software for different users of computer system establishes.
Types of operating systems
Operating systems are from the first generation of computers and they are growing more and more over time. In it, we will discuss some important types of operating systems that are most used.
Batch operating system
Users of the batch operating system do not interact directly with the computer. Every user prepares their jobs on an off-line device like punch cards and sends it to the computer operator. In order to speed up processing, the batch of similar needs are worked together and goes as a group. If programmers leave their programs with the operator, then run programs with similar requirements in batches.
Time-sharing operating systems
Time-sharing is a technique that enables many people at several terminals to use a particular computer system at the same time. There is a logical extension of time-sharing or multitasking Multiprographic. The time of the processor, which is shared with many users, is called Time-sharing.
The main difference between Multiprogrammed batch systems and time-sharing systems is that in the case of Multiprogrammed Batch Systems, the purpose of the processor is to maximize usage, while in the time-sharing system it aims to reduce response time.
Distributed operating system
Distributed operating systems use central processors to provide a number of real-time applications and many users together. Data processing jobs are distributed as per processor.
Processors communicate with each other through various communication lines (such as high-speed buses or telephone lines). These are loosely referenced (referred to) as coupled systems or distributed systems. Distributed systems can vary in processor size and function. These processors are known by sites, nodes, computers, and so on.
Network operating system
The network operating system runs on one server and provides the server with the ability to manage data, groups, users, applications, security and other networking functions. The primary purpose of the network operating system is to allow file sharing and printer access between multiple networks in a network, usually a local area network (LAN), a private network or other networks.
Examples of network operating systems include “Microsoft Windows Server 2003, Microsoft Windows Server 2008, Unix, Linux, Mac OS X, Novell NetWare, and BSD”.
Real Time operating system
A real-time system is defined as a data processing system. Where the time interval required to process the input and the answer is so small that it is the environmental controls. The time difference between an input and required update information taken by the time system is called response time on the display. Therefore, response time is very less compared to online processing in this method.
Real-time systems are used where there is a rigid time required on the operation of the processor. A real-time operating system must have a well-defined, fixed time constraint, otherwise, the system will fail.
For example- scientific experiments, air traffic control systems, weapon systems, medical imaging systems, industrial control systems, robots etc.
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